What to do to avoid the flu

Widespread flu activity is being reported by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in states near Connecticut, and the American Red Cross has sent an advisory urging people who have not yet gotten a flu vaccine to get vaccinated now.

The Red Cross also has posted steps people can take to prevent the spread of the flu virus during flu season.

Steps to prevent flu

The CDC recommends a yearly flu vaccine for everyone 6 months of age and older as the first and most important step in protecting against flu viruses. In addition to getting vaccinated, the Red Cross has some simple steps people can take to help prevent the spread of the flu virus. Parents can also practice these things with their children to help keep them well:

• Cover the nose and mouth with a tissue or sleeve when coughing or sneezing, and throw the tissue away after use. If a tissue isn’t available, cough or sneeze into the elbow, not the hands.

• Wash hands often, especially after coughing or sneezing. If soap and water are not available, use an alcohol-based hand rub.

• Avoid touching the eyes, nose or mouth.

• Avoid close contact with people who are sick.

• Stay home if sick.

Signs of the flu

How does someone know they have the flu? The common signs of influenza are high fever, severe body aches, headache, extreme tiredness, sore throat, cough, runny or stuffy nose, and vomiting and/or diarrhea (more common in children).

The Red Cross suggests the following steps for caring for someone with the flu:

• Designate one person as the caregiver and have the other household members avoid close contact with that person so they won’t become sick.

• Make sure the person stays at home and rests until 24 hours after the fever is gone.

• Designate a sick room for the person if possible. If there is more than one sick person, they can share the sick room if needed. If there is more than one bathroom, designate one for those who are sick to use. Give each sick person their own drinking glass, washcloth and towel.

• Keep the following either in the sick room or near the person: tissues, a trash can lined with a plastic trash bag, alcohol-based hand rub, a cooler or pitcher with ice and drinks, a thermometer, and a cup with straw or squeeze bottle to help with drinking. A humidifier will provide extra moisture, making it easier for the sick person to breathe. Sick people should wear a facemask, if available, when they leave the sick room or are around others.

• Give plenty of liquids (water and other clear liquids) at the first sign of flu and continue throughout the illness. People with the flu need to drink extra fluids to keep from getting dehydrated.

• Treat fever and cough with medicines that can be purchased at the store. Remember, when children are ill they should never be given aspirin or products containing aspirin — especially with the flu.

• If the person gets very sick, is pregnant or has a medical condition (like asthma) that puts the person at higher risk of flu complications, call the doctor. The person may need to be examined and might need antiviral medicine to treat the flu.

• Keep everyone’s personal items separate. All household members should avoid sharing pens, papers, clothes, towels, sheets, blankets, food, or eating utensils unless cleaned between uses.

• Disinfect doorknobs, switches, handles, computers, telephones, bedside tables, bathroom sinks, toilets, counters, toys, and other surfaces that are commonly touched around the home or workplace.

• Wash everyone’s dishes in the dishwasher or by hand using very hot water and soap.

• Wash everyone’s clothes in a standard washing machine. Use detergent and very hot water, tumble dry on a hot dryer setting and wash hands after handling dirty laundry.

• Wear disposable gloves when in contact with or cleaning up body fluids.

Call the doctor

If someone thinks they have the flu, their health care provider should be consulted. Seek medical care immediately if the person develops any of the following symptoms:

• Fast breathing, trouble breathing or bluish skin color.

• Pain or pressure in the chest or abdomen (adults).

• Confusion or sudden dizziness.

• Not drinking enough fluids, not being able to eat, or severe or persistent vomiting.

• Flu-like symptoms that improve but then return with fever and worse cough.

• Not waking up, being so irritable that the child does not want to be held or not interacting (children).

• Fever with a rash (children).

• No tears when crying or significantly fewer wet diapers than normal (children).

More information about how to help protect loved ones during flu season is available on redcross.org.